Paul H. Douglas Award
The Paul H. Douglas Award for Ethics in Government is memorialized by a solid bronze medallion bearing the Senator’s likeness.
Ethics, integrity, and understanding opposing viewpoints defined the career of Paul H. Douglas, who served as U.S. Senator from Illinois from 1949-1967. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of his birth in 1992, the University of Illinois established the Paul H. Douglas Award for Ethics in Government to extend this legacy for generations to come and to encourage future leaders to follow a similar path. Douglas’ career provides a model for public service and IGPA is proud to be the home for this award since its inception. The 2018 award was presented to former President Barack Obama. In 2019, the award was presented to Walter M. Shaub, Jr., former director of the U.S. Office of Government Ethics. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, no award was presented in 2020. Among other award recipients are U.S. Senators Mike Mansfield, Paul Simon, Barbara Mikulski, Richard Lugar, Carl Levin, Alan Simpson, Olympia Snowe and Richard Cohen, former Congressman and federal judge Abner Mikva, and retired U.S. Supreme Court Justices Sandra Day O’Connor and John Paul Stevens.
The Paul H. Douglas Award for Ethics in Government is memorialized by a solid bronze medallion bearing the senator’s likeness. The award is presented annually to a person whose public actions, writings or other contributions have made a significant contribution to the practice and understanding of ethical behavior and fair play in government. The recipient may be an elected or career government official or former official, at any level of government and regardless of party, or a private citizen whose public actions or writings have made a significant contribution to the practice and understanding of ethical behavior in government. A selection committee drawn from the public and private sectors and academe selects the honoree from nominees whose careers have demonstrated or promoted respect for the highest standards of public service. Nominations for the award may be made by anyone and are sought from individuals and organizations across the United States. Past recipients include a Nobel Prize winner.
Janet Yellen, 2017 Honoree
- The New York Times, October 1966, On the life of Paul H. Douglas
The Life of Paul H. Douglas
Paul H. Douglas (1892-1976) represented Illinois in the United States Senate from 1949-1967. A Democrat, Douglas was an economist and enjoyed a distinguished academic career. He served in the Marine Corps during World War II and then moved to politics.
During his 18 years in the Senate, Douglas was a forceful champion of civil rights, social welfare programs, public housing, extension of Social Security (including Medicare), federal aid to education, the environment, and legislation beneficial to labor unions.
But it was his sense of fairness and integrity that earned Douglas great respect among people of all political stripes. During his first term in the Senate, Douglas was called on to deliver the Godkin Lectures at Harvard and chose to speak about ethics in politics. The lectures clearly laid out a prescription for ethical behavior among elected officials and government bureaucrats and were later adapted into a book, “Ethics in Government,” published in 1952. This and Senator Douglas own record of fair play earned him the moniker “conscience of the Senate.”
As an alderman in the 1930s, Douglas wrote a document that he gave to constituents who came to his office seeking political favors. It carried the title “Help Me to Be an Honest Alderman.” As a new senator, he stopped accepting disability payments from the Marines because he did not wish to receive “double payment from the government.” The payments were put into a limited trust fund that eventually reverted back to the federal government.
Paul Howard Douglas was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on March 26, 1892. His mother died when he was four, and he was raised by his stepmother near the community of Onawa and in Newport, in central Maine. He attended Bowdoin College in Brunswick, ME, and earned his Bachelor’s degree in economics in 1913. He worked his way through graduate school at Columbia University and earned a Master’s degree in 1915 and his PhD in economics in 1921.
In 1915, Douglas married Dorothy Wolff, also an economist, whom he had met at Columbia. They had four children—Helen, John, Dorothea, and Paul W.—over the next 11 years. The couple divorced in 1930, with Dorothy assuming responsibility for the children. In 1931, Douglas married Emily Taft and they raised one daughter, Jean. Emily was the daughter of noted sculptor Lorado Taft, whose works include the Alma Mater on the University of Illinois’ Urbana campus and the Fountain of Time on Chicago’s Midway Plaisance.
Douglas’ academic career took him from a year of study at Harvard to Urbana-Champaign, where he spent the 1916-17 academic year as an economics instructor at the University of Illinois. He later taught at Reed College in Oregon and the University of Washington before moving to the University of Chicago in 1920. He was promoted to full professor in 1925.
Douglas quickly gained a reputation as an excellent teacher, a productive scholar, a humanitarian, and a civic activist. He was appointed by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1933 to a seat on the Consumers’ Advisory Board of the short-lived National Recovery Administration.
Friends urged him to run as an independent candidate against Democratic Mayor Edward J. Kelly in 1935. Douglas declined the invitation but he later wrote in his memoir that he did so even though “my secret ambition was to be mayor of Chicago.”
In 1939, Douglas did run for the Chicago City Council as an Independent Democrat. He won, primarily due to Mayor Kelly’s endorsement of him, and served as an alderman until 1942 when he sought the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate. He lost that nomination to Congressman Raymond S. McKeough.
The day after the election, Douglas told his wife that he wanted to enlist in the Marine Corps. At the age of 50, he resigned his City Council seat and entered World War II. On May 9, 1945, he suffered a serious arm wound during the battle for Okinawa. He would later endure four surgeries to repair damaged nerves, but never regained use of his left hand. He received the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star for his service.
While Douglas was away, Emily Douglas was active in political and social causes at home. In 1944, she defeated the incumbent to win Illinois’ at-large seat in Congress. She served one term.
Douglas resumed his professorship at the University of Chicago after the war, and in 1947 he was elected to the presidency of the prestigious American Economics Association. However, political issues were never far from his thoughts. In those postwar years, he stoutly defended the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and the formation of a strong military alliance with Western European nations. In early 1948, he was slated by the Democratic Party to challenge Senator Charles W. Brooks and, in the Election Day upset that also saw Harry Truman win the White House, won election that November.
Senator Douglas was especially proud of his work on tax reform and Medicare, his efforts against federal subsidies, and for truth-in-lending laws. He is remembered, too, for his work in the area of civil rights in the 1950s and 1960s. In fact, his relentless efforts on civil rights bills in 1956 and 1957, which included procedural battles with then-Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson, provided much of the framework for what would become the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964.
In his last years in the Senate, Senator Douglas fought for preservation of the Indiana Dunes at the southern shore of Lake Michigan, speaking about it so tirelessly that he became known as “the third senator from Indiana.” His efforts paid off when the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore was created in 1966.
Douglas sought his fourth term in 1966, but was unseated by Charles H. Percy, who had been one of his economics students at the University of Chicago. Percy held the Senate seat for three terms himself, before he was defeated by Paul Simon in 1984.
In retirement, Douglas spent time teaching and writing and for a time was chairman of the National Commission on Urban Problems. He suffered a stroke in 1969 that caused him to use a wheelchair in his final years, but that did not keep him from writing and publishing his memoir “In the Fullness of Time” in 1972.
Senator Douglas died at his home in Washington on September 24, 1976. He was 84.
Sources: Douglas, Paul H., In the Fullness of Time: The Memoirs of Paul H. Douglas, 1972
Biles, Roger, Crusading Liberal: Paul H. Douglas of Illinois, 2002
U.S. Senate Historical Office
Honoree | 2022
Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Marie Yovanovitch is a Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and a non-Resident Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Georgetown University. Previously, she served as the U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine from 2016 to 2019, the Republic of Armenia from 2008 to 2011, and the Kyrgyz Republic from 2005 to 2008. She also served as the Dean of the School of Language Studies at the Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Department of State, and as the Deputy Commandant and International Advisor at the Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy, National Defense University. She previously served as the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, where she coordinated policy on European and global security issues. Within the Department of State, Ambassador Yovanovitch has worked on the Russia desk, the Office of European Security Affairs, and the Operations Center. She has also worked overseas at the U.S. Embassies in Moscow, London, Ottawa, and Mogadishu.
NATIONAL SELECTION COMMITTEE
Nominations can be submitted by sending a nomination letter to the IGPA Director. The nomination letter should include a short bio and a short explanation of why the nominee is deserving of this award. All nominations will be screened for eligibility then forwarded to the selection committee for review.
Nominations can be made online by clicking here:
Or submitted via email to email@example.com
Or sent to:
Institute of Government and Public Affairs
University of Illinois ATTN: Douglas Award Nomination Committee 1007 West Nevada Street Urbana, IL 61801
Recipients of the award may be elected or career government officials, or former officials with a national, regional, or state reputation and experience in the area of ethics and government. A nominee should be a person whose career demonstrates or promotes respect for high standards of public service.
Questions may be directed to Alyssa Cooper.